Anaphorium evolved from a passionate desire to perform improvised compositions of gestural form within the immersive space of VR.

A low resolution reference video made in 2005 as one of a series of studies created to demonstrate the visual characteristics of Michael Scroggins' nascent VR project Momentarily. This project eventually led to the development of Traces which was then incorporated into Anaphorium.


Learn more in Robert Russett's 2009 book, Hyperanimation: Digital Images and Virtual Worlds.

A phone cam video from Traces, Elijah Kleeman's 2013 CalArts BFA4 thesis installation. Kleeman was  interested in Scroggins' Momentarily experiments and developed code in Unity empowering a performer to draw out flowing forms with a PhaseSpace tracked stylus while immersed in a PhaseSpace tracked eMagin Z800 HMD.  This work became the core of the Anaphorium project.

Michael Scroggins' world premiere public performance with Anaphorium. The improvised performance took place at the end of a retrospective presentation of his work in absolute animation during the symposium, L'ART DES GENERIQUES:Territoire d'auteurs-créateurs, held on June 6, 2017 at the Grand Amphi d'ISIS Ecole d'ingénieurs in Castres, France. This  early beta version of Anaphorium was built upon the accumulated intermittent work of a small dedicated team that over time has included, Michael Scroggins, Elijah Kleeman, Théotime Vaillant, Ness Morris, Vahé Karamian and Skylar Chen.

"The capacity for total immersion and interaction in Virtual Reality make it an ideal medium for the continued development of absolute animation. This development will yield experiences as far beyond our abilities to imagine them today as were the abilities of the inventors of the first primitive musical instruments to imagine the awesome experience of a late nineteenth century symphony."

--Michael Scroggins, 1991